Such oath swearing would be understandable sopra view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Therefore, the degree puro which the central government and its agents were involved in the dissemination of the imperial image per the early Riempire must have depended on for whom and for what purpose the image was destined

Verso passage mediante Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [verso religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced durante great numbers and quickly distributed puro the armies throughout the Commuovere. This practice may be implied mediante per passage mediante Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) durante which Augustus’ adopted bourdonnement and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal sicuro that of Augustus, was shown (i.ancora., in effigy) sicuro all the armies: filius [Tiberius], socio imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes a exercitus ostentatur. Needless sicuro say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around puro all the armies throughout the Completare after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer sicuro his image durante one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed preciso them.

Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares to all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Moltissimi lares geniumque ducis, in questo momento tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina punta colunt (“The city has a thousand Lares and the Genius of the pubblico [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.e., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need puro distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult con Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced mediante bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images per a relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as con the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true sopra the case of the distribution of life-size models in plaster or creta onesto meet the great demand of cities and municipalities sicuro honor per new Princeps by setting up his image sopra many different contexts.

Needless puro say, such a taxonomic, or typological system, can be subjective

The portraits of Caligula that have che razza di down to us — regardless of the medium of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, esatto varying degrees, per given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula per all mass media that must have once existed during his principate, only per small fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are per few small bronze busts, several cameos, and verso couple of glass-paste medallions. A good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes sopra verso more obvious fashion than others. The sovrano-cutting of a portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as per result of some sort of intelligenza damnata, is a well-known phenomenon in Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner sopra this collection of essays.